Emergency situation

Emergency situation

radiaciuli zemoqmedebebis marTva

Sesavali

saomari moqmedebebis dros SesaZloa adgili hqondes birTvul afeTqebebs. magram sxivuri dazianebebi warmoiqmneba rogorc birTvuli afeTqebebis dros, aseve  radioaqtiuri wyaroebis zemoqmedebis da mSvidobianobis drosac (sxivuri diagnostikamaRali dozebiT dasxiveba). dazianeba aRiniSneba roca dasxiveba aRemateba > 70 s/gr-is (santi/grei) e.w. mcire dozebiT zemoqmedeba xangrZlivi drois ganmavlobaSi.

            aRiarebulia rom adamianze mcire dozebiT xangrZlivi zemoqmedebis dros adgili aqvs avTvisebiani simsivneebis warmoqmnis did albaTobas romelic gamomJRavndeba ara uSualod zemoqmedebisas aramed ramodenime wlis Semdeg. 

 

 

 

mizani

      am dokumentis mizania meTaurTaTvis ganisazRvros saxelmZRvanelo principebi piradi Semadgenlobis dasacavad samxedro moqmedebebis im arealSi sadac adgili eqneba dasxivebis mcire dozebis zemoqmedebas.

 

gansazRvra

mcire dozebis zemoqmedeba (mdz) - aRiniSneba ara marto birTvuli afeTqebisas (afeTqebisas gamoityorcneba mcire simZlavris radionuklidebi), aramed afeTqebis Semdgomac – romelic gamowveulia radioaqtiuri elmentebiT e.w. radioaqtiuri naleqebi da aseve mdz moicavs bunebriv radiaciul fons.

 

mdz - daxasiaTeba

      mdz  - cvalebadia mTel planetaze da damokidebulia adgilmdebareobis geomorfologiur mdgomareobaze. odnav momatebuli fonis aRmoCena Zalian Znelia da did yuradRebas moiTxovs. mdz gvevlineba gafantuli radioaqtiuri nuklidebidan rogorc Txevadi, aseve airis da orTqlis saxiT. radioaqtiuri nuklidebi asxiveben alfa, beta, gama da neitronul nawilakebs. radionuklidebi gamosxivebis mxriv mravalferovnebia - zogi alfa gamomsxivebelia, zogi beta, zogi or nawilaks alfasac da betasac asxivebs.

      a) alfa sxivi (mas aseve alfa nawilaks, alfa radiacias uwodeben). alfa nawilakis haerSi ganarbeni manZili Zalian mcirea, ramodenime santimetramdea. haerSi ganarbeni manZili damokidebulia Tu romeli alfa gamomsxivebeli radionuklidia. alfa sxivs ar SeuZlia SeaRwios tanisamosSi, ver aRwevs organizmSi dazianebuli kanidanac, misi SeRwevadoba Semoifargleba qaRldis erTi furcliT.

      b) beta sxivi. beta sxivis haerSi ganarbeni manZili ramodenime metramdea. sxvadasxva radionuklidisaTvis haerSi ganarbeni manZili sxvadasxvaa. misi SeRwevadoba Semoifargleba qaRaldis 100 furcliT. misi zemoqmedeba inhalaciuri gziT organizmisaTvis safrTxes warmoadgens, aseve SeuZlia gamoiwvios kanis mcire dazianeba damwvrobis saxiT.

      g) gama sxivi. gama sxivs unari gaaCnia SeaRwios adamianis organizmSi rentgenis sxivebis msgavsad. gama sxivs akavebs myari nivTierebebi foladi, rkina-betonis narevi, 1m miwayrili da a.S. gama sxivis SeRwevadoba damokidebulia  nivTierebis Semadgenlobaze. gama sxivi advilad aRwevs organizmSi da SeuZlia mTeli sxulis dasxiveba.

      d) neitronuli sxivebi. neitronul nawilakebs aseve SeRwevadobis unari gaaCniaT, mxolod maTi SeCereba SesaZlebelia arc ise myari nivTierebebiT. advilad aRwevs adamianis organizmSi. SeuZlia mTeli sxeulis dasxiveba gamoiwvios.

 

mdz SesaZlo wyaroebi

            1.mrewvelobaSi gamoyenebuli xelsawyoebi. isini Seicaven radioaqtiur izotopebs. esenia sisqis da donis mzomebi, viskozimetrebi da gamagrafiis  xelsawyoebi.

2.medicinaSi gamoyenebuli xelsawyoebi (rentgenis generatorebi da sxva dasaplombi masalebi). isini Seicaven gaaqtivebul urans, geqsaftorids, plutons da sxva.

3.birTvuli afeTqebebi. birTvuli afeTqebis Catarebis Sedegad, romelsac adgili hqonda gansakuTrebiT intensiurad gasuli saukunis 50-60-ian wlebSi warmoiqmna garemos (haeri, niadagi, wyali) dabinZureba 200-mde saxis xelovnuri radioaqtiuri izotopiT, romlebic qmnian adamianis garegani da Sinagani dasxivebis damatebiT xelovnur wyaros. birTvuli afeTqebis Sedegad warmoiqmneba 300-mde radioaqtiuri elementi. warmoiqmneba Rrublis saxiT da misi mimobneva niadagze damokidebulia qaris mimarTulebasa da siCqareze. 

4.radiologiuri iaraRi. xelsawyo romelic gankuTvnilia garemos dasabinZureblad radioaqtiuri nivTierebebiT. Seicavs radionuklidebs da feTqebad nivTierebebs. afeTqebis Sedegad dispersiuli saxiT radioaqtiuri naleqebi mimoefineba dedamiwis zedapirze.  

5.samxedro seqtorSi gamoyenebuli radionuklidebi. zogierTi sabrZolo masala Seicas gaRaribebul urans. sabrZolo masalis dazianebis SemTxvevaSi adgili eqneba  radiaciis gaJonvas da SesaZloa aman gamoiwvios sxivuri davadeba. 

 


riskis marTva.

 

sxivuri zemoqmedebis kontroli aucilebelia raTa gamoiricxos organizmis dasnebovneba aseve is efeqtebi romelic moslodnelia rom gamomJRavndeba ramodenime wlis Semdeg qronikuli sxivuri daavadebis saxiT. yovelive ki xels Seuwyobs raTa warmatebulad ganxorcieldes samxedro seqtorisaTvis dasmuli amocana. yovelive zemoTqmulidan gamomdinare dagegmarebisas da samxedro moqmedebisas mdz unda warmoadgendes rogorc faqtori ganxilvis, yuradRebis da reagirebis sagans.  

 

 

 

radiaciuli zemoqmedebis marTva samxedro moqmedebebis dros

      yvelaze mTavari principi marTvisa radiaciuli zemoqmedebis dros mdgomareobs Setyobinebis sistemis warmatebiT funqcionirebaSi. xelmomweri qveynebi Tanxmdebian rom Seasruleben da ixelmZRvaneleben instruqciebiTa da normatiuli aqtebiT radiaciis mcire dozebiT zemoqmedebis dros. xelmomweri qveynebi Tanxmdebian rom gacvlian informacias mdz Sesaxeb romelmac SesaZloa momavalSi mavne zegavlena iqonios janmrTelobis mdgomareobaze. xelmomweri qveynebi Tanxmdebian rom Seasruleben  Setyobinebis ZiriTad moTxovnebs raTa warmatebiT marTon mdz samxedro moqmedebebis dros. danarTi a warmoadgens saxelmZRvanelos meTaurTaTvis. danarTSi rekomendirebulia miTiTebebi romelic xels Seuwyobs raTa minimumamde dayvanili iqnas radiciis mavne zemoqmedeba organizmze. xazgasasmelia rom savele pirobebSi SeuZlebelia inhalaciuri gziT miRebuli gama sxivis, aseve kanis gziT miRebuli beta sxivis da peroralurad miRebuli radioaqtiuri nawilakebis gazomva. yuradsaRebia rom rig SemTxvevebSi organizmis mier miRebuli efeqturi ekvivalenturi doza aRemateba dozimetris mier teritoriaze dafiqsirebuli dozis maCvenebels. aqedan gamomdinare guldasmiT unda ganisazRvros organizmSi radionuklidis moxvedris gza. danarTi a moicavs mxolod im riskebs romelmac SesaZloa gamoiwvios qronikuli sxivuri daavadebebi. dasxivebis normaze odnav momatebuli dozebis zemoqmedebas samaSvelo, humanitaruli da sxva operaciebis Catarebis dros  gamarTleba eqneba maSin Tu gaTvaliswinebuli iqneba drois faqtori anu piradi Semadgenlobis yofna dabinZurebul teritoriaze drosTan mimarTebaSi. ufro martivi samarTavia is dazianebebi romlebic gamowveulia samrewvelo, samedicino radioaqtiuri wyaroebidan. aseTi wyaroebidan            miRebuli riskebi unda Sefasdes moqmedebebis dawyebamde. Sefasebebis Semdeg dadgenili  da Camoyalibebuli unda iqnas gauTvaliswinebeli mdgomareobebis gegma. gegma unda moicavdes:

a)yvela identificirebuli riskis daxasiaTebas da xarisxs incidentis scenaris  da ubeduri SemTxvevis CaTvliT.

b)imis dadgenas Tu ramdenad SesaZlebelia radiaciis sazomi xelsawyos saSualebiT mdz gansazvra.

g)gadaudebeli moqmedebebis da kontrolis ganxorcielebas (dasaSvebi normebis gansazRvris CaTvliT). Tu ramdenad Seesabameba dadgenil normebs adgilmdebareobis pirobebi.   

d)problemebs romlebic dakavSirebulia mowyobilobebTan (dozimetrebis, speqtrometrebis, dezaqtivaciis da samedicino RonisZiebebis CaTvliT).

e)damatebiT informacias nacionalur teqnikur centrebze adgilmdebareobis monitringisa da kontrolis sawarmoeblad (daxmarebis mizniT).

v)damatebiTi RonisZiebebis CamonaTvals personalis da aRWurvilobis gaTvaliswinebiT.

z)personalis gawvrTnas da informirebulobas.

 

safrTxis Tavidan acileba

moqmedebebis arelSi meTaurma unda gaataros Semdegi RonisZiebebi:  

a)miiRos informacia adgilmdebareobis potenciuri dabinZurebis Sesaxeb

b)hqondes informacia mimRebi qveynis birTvuli da radiaciuli dacvisa da kontrolis  marTvis saSualebebze

g)Semofarglos da aRniSnos radioaqtiuri dabinZurebis adgilebi

d)uzrunvelyos radioaqtiuri masalebis dacvis saSualebebis kontrolze ayvana da dacva.

e)uzrunvelyos yvela nagvsayrelis da narCenis monitoringi manam sanam ar damtkicdeba radioaqtiuri safrTxis ar arseboba.

 

winaswari moqmedeba

roca safrTxe identificirebulia miRebuli unda iqnas Semdegi zomebi:

 

1.Tu saSualeba aris evkuacia gaukeTeT pirad Semadgenlobas. Tu es SeuZlebelia garkveuli mizezebis gamo evakuacia ganaxorcieleT 1km radiusis moSorebiT

2. unda gakeTdes zepirsityvieri Setyobineba an gamoyenebuli unda iqnas 

        ATP-45 –Si miTiTebuli Setyobinebis forma

3.Setyobineba unda gaegzavnos adgilobriv samoqalaqo marTvelobis organoebs.

4.eqspertizis Casatareblad mowvuli unda iqnas specialistebi.

garda amisa unda moxdes Sefaseba da Seiqmnas moqmedebis gegma.

gegma unda moicavdes:

a)eqspluataciisaTvis dadgenil normebs.

b).saxifaTo adgilidan Semdgomi evakuaciis mimarTulebis

  gansazRvras da moqmedebebs.

g). kontrols – raTa gamoiricxos:

(1) personalze mavne zemoqmedeba.

(2) safrTxis gavrceleba da dabinZurebuli mtveriT dasnebovneba..

                                   d).gauTvaliswinebel riskebs - personalis dacvas romelic  

               garkveuli mizezebis (eqpluatacia da  

               a.S) gamo unda darCes saxifaTo teritoriaze. amaze meTauria  

               pasuxismgebeli. meTaurma konsultaciisaTvis unda miiwvios

               samedicino personali da radiologebi.  saWiroebis SemTxvevaSi 

               dozimetrebi unda iqnas gamoyenebuli. mdz SemTxvevaSi 

               gamoyenebuli unda iqnas kanisa da sasunTqi organoebis damcavi

               saSualebebi, manam sanam analizi ar daadgens potenciuri

               riskebis ar arsebobas. 

                        e) sadezaqtivacio RonisZiebebs.

                         v)garantiebs rom wyali da sakvebi dabinZurebuli ar aris.

 

 

gegma.

unda moicavdes:

a)dasaSvebi dozebis dadgenas im personalisaTvis romelsc muSaoba mouwevs saxifaTo teritoriaze. unda ganisazRvros dasxivebis doza. unda Sefasdes dasxivebis doza da dafiqsirdes; 

b)personalis da aRWurvilobis dezaqtivacias usafrTxoebis mizniT (specialistebis konsultacia saWiro iqneba imis mixedviT Tu ra dabinZurebas hqonda adgili);

g)dazvervas da kontrols raTa ganisazRvros dabinZurebis intensivoba;

d)Setyobinebis formebs safrTxis Sesaxeb ara marto sakuTari aramed sxva qveynis ZalebisTvis;

e)rogorc mimRebi aseve gamgzavni qveynis specialistebis mzadyofnas (radiologebi ekologebi). eqspertebi saWiroa raTa dadgindes mdz buneba, dabinZurebis xarisxi da sxva saTanado monacemebi;

v)reziumes.

 

 

gegmis Sesruleba.

gegma SeTanxmebuli unda iqnas meTaurTan.

specialistebma unda:

a)gaakeTon Canawerebi mdz Sesaxeb da Seitanon samedicino angariSebSi (sadac dagenili iqneba mdz da janmrTelobis mdgomareobas Soris kavSiri). CarTuli unda iqnas samedicino dargis specialistebi;

b)unda ganaxorcielon mdz mudmivi monitoringi;

g)unda aiRon sinjebi detaluri kvlevebis Casatareblad.

 

eqspertebi (mrCevlebi)

moqmedebis arealSi rbq specialistebi mowveulni SeiZleba iyvnen:

a)sxvadasxva danayofebisa da dajgufebebidan (rbq dacvis oficrebi);

b)rbq dacvis specialistebi (samoqalaqo pirebi);

g)kvleviTi institutebidan an sxva komerciuli saagentoebidan.

      mdz doza dadgenili unda iqnas miRebuli jamuri dozidan. informacia meTurs unda miewodos angariSis saxiT. miRebuli informacia meTaurma unda gaiTvaliswinos  (riskebis gaTvaliswinebiT) raTa dagegmos Semdgomi moqmedebebi.

      samxedro moqmedebis damTavrebis Semdeg SesaZloa xangrZlivi dro iyos saWiro dakvirvebisaTvis im samxedro personalis janmrTelobis mdgomareobaze romlebic imyofebodnen dabinZurebis arealSi.

 

danarTi a

    mcire dozebis zemoqmedebis dros gansaxorcielebeli samuSaoebi

 

mTliani jamuri doza (ix SeniSvna  1 da 2)

  kvlevis

kategoriebi

rekomendaciebi

0 - 0.05 s/grei

0

 

0.05 - 0.5 s/grei

1 a

awarmoeT aRricxva perioduli monitoringis Sedegad miRebuli dozebisa (haeri, wyali) 

0.5 - 5 s/grei

1 b

CaiwereT monitoringis Sedegad miRebuli individualuri dozebi, gaagrZeleT dozimetruli kontroli.  daadgineT prioritetebi. moqmedebebis dros akontroleT dozebi

5-10 s/grei

1 g

CaiwereT miRebuli individualuri dozebi. gagrZeleT dozimetruli kontroli. samuSaoebi unda SeasruloT im SemTxvevaSi Tu (SeniSvna 3)

10-25 s/grei

1Dd

CaiwereT miRebuli individualuri dozebi. gaagerZeleT dozimetruli kontroli. CaatareT samuSaoebi im SemTxvevaSi Tu  (SeniSvna 4)

25 -70 s/grei

1Ee

CaiwereT miRebuli individualuri dozebi. ganaxorcieleT monitoringi standartebis Sesabamisad. CaatareT gamokiTxva. gaagreleT dozis kontroli. SeasruleT amocana mxolod im SemTxvevaSi Tu (SeniSvna 4)

 

SeniSvna

 

1.mikrozivertis (mk/zv) rogorc erTeulis gamoyeneba mizanSewonilia yvela SemTxvevaSi. magram  samxedro seqtorSi - natos struqturebSi gamoiyeneba mxolod santigrei (s/gr)organizmis mTliani dasxiveba gama sxiviT. 1 s/gr  = 10 mk/zv

2.dasxivebis dozebis maCveneblebi SesaZlebelia mcirediT aRematebodes zRvrulad dasaSvebi normis maCvenebels, rac Sesabamisad Seamcirebs radiaciis mavne zegavlenas piradi Semadgenlobis janmrTelobis mdgomareobaze.

3.safrTxe ar emuqreba pirad Semadgenlobas da ar arsebobs radiaciis gavrcelebis safrTxe

4.safrTxe ar emuqreba piradi Semadgenlobis sicocxles

 

danarTi

dasxivebis zRvrulad dasaSvebi dozebi (gaTvlili 7 dReze)

 

dasxivebis dozebi

dasxivebis maqsimalurad dasaSvebi dozebi (1) 7 dReze bk/sm2

 

aRWurvilobaze da damcav komleqtze (2)

kanze (3)

 

1

2

3

 

maRali energiis alfa gamosxiveba (4)

beta da dabali energiis alfa gamosxiveba

mxolod beta gamosxiveba

kategoria 1 a 0.05 - 0.5 s/gr

5

50

10 (erTjeradi)

kategoria 1 b 0.5 - 5 s/gr

50

500

10 (10 jeradi)

kategoria 1 g 5 - 10 s/gr

100

1000

10 (50 jeradi)

kategoria 1 d 10 - 25 s/gr

250

2500

10 (50 jeradi)

kategoria 1 e 25 - 70 s/gr

700

7000

10 (50 jeradi)

 

 

 

 

 

SeniSvna:

1.                                        dasxivebis dadgenili maqsimalurad dasaSvebi dozebi.

2.                   Tu SeuZlebelia alfa gamosxivebis dozis dadgena ixelmZRvaneleT cxrilSi  

      arsebuli 1 svetiT.

 

3.                   dabinZurebuli aRWurvilobis dezaqtivacia damcavi kompleqtis gareSe SesaZlebelia mxolod 1 a kategoriisaTvis.

4.                   dezaqtivacia unda ganxorcieldes mxolod im SemTxvevaSi Tu dasxivebis doza > 10 bk/sm2  da unda SeCerdes Tu < 10 bk/sm2  doziT dasxivebisas.

mowodebuli rekomendacia gaTvlilia mxolod 1 kviris ganmavlobaSi Catarebul samuSaoebze.

danarTi d

                dasxivebis zRvrulad dasaSvebi dozebi (gaTvlili 3 Tveze)

 

dasxivebis dozebi

dasxivebis maqsimalurad dasaSvebi dozebi (1) 3 Tveze bk/sm2

 

aRWurvilobaze da damcav komleqtze (2)

kanze (3)

 

1

2

3

 

maRali energiis alfa gamosxiveba (4)

beta da dabali energiis alfa gamosxiveba

mxolod beta gamosxiveba

kategoria 1 a 0.05 - 0.5 s/gr

0.5

5

10 (erTjeradi)

kategoria 1 b 0.5 - 5 s/gr

5

50

10 (10 jeradi)

kategoria 1 g 5 - 10 s/gr

10

100

10 (50 jeradi)

kategoria 1 d 10 - 25 s/gr

25

250

10 (50 jeradi)

kategoria 1 e 25 - 70 s/gr

70

700

10 (50 jeradi)

 

SeniSvna:

  1. dasxivebis dadgenili maqsimalurad dasaSvebi dozebi.
  2. Tu SeuZlebelia alfa gamosxivebis dozis dadgena ixelmZRvaneleT cxrilSi 

      arsebuli 1 svetiT.

 

  1. dabinZurebuli aRWurvilobis dezaqtivacia damcavi kompleqtis gareSe SesaZlebelia mxolod 1 a kategoriisaTvis.
  2. dezaqtivacia unda ganxorcieldes mxolod im SemTxvevaSi Tu dasxivebis doza > 10 bk/sm2  da unda SeCerdes Tu < 10 bk/sm2  doziT dasxivebisas.

mowodebuli rekomendacia gaTvlilia mxolod 3 Tveze

danarTi e

 

radiaciuli dabinZurebis SemTxvevaSi dasxivebis dozis SesaZlo taqtikuri efeqtis dadgena pirad Semadgenlobaze 

 

 

 

 

 

 

mTliani jamuri doza (s/gr) (2)

kvlevis

kategoriebi

SesaZlo sawyisi taqtikuri efeqti (dasxivebis Semdgom) (4)

0

r 0

 -

0-ze meti , magram 75-ze naklebi

r 1

1%-s aRiniSneba faruli umoqmedoba (3)

75-ze meti, 125-ze naklebi.

r 2

5%-s aRiniSneba faruli umoqmedoba (3)

125-ze meti.

r 3

5%-ze mets aReniSneba faruli umoqmedoba da efeqti izrdeba dozis matebasTan erTad (3).   jgufma SesaZloa ver Seasrulos dasmuli

amocana.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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